Stick Balls

The inner core stones of stick balls

A reconstructed stick ball courtesy of the Ocmulgee National Monument

Like its predecessor, Chunky, stick ball was a game of chance that brought people together from neighboring villages.  As Chunky diminished in popularity during the 18th century, stick ball became the central focus and continues to be popular today among Native Americans.  Not unlike major sports today, those who excelled at the game became local heroes much like a great warrior might have become.

Stick ball required skills similar to those required by warfare - strength, speed, endurance, and agility.  The game was often referred to as "younger brother to war" and "little war."  Early observers described the games as extremely chaotic and quite violent, not unlike a battle.  Unlike lacrosse, stick ball was played with two hickory sticks of about 30 inches in length with leather webbing on one end.  The cups on these rackets was a good deal smaller than a lacrosse racket.  The balls were made from stitched hide stuffed with deer hair, often with a small stone or other solid object in the center.

The field size varied with the size of the teams, which could be any number of players as long as the teams were of even numbers.  Goal posts could be one post, two posts, or two posts with a cross bar.  Scoring required a player with the ball to touch or pass through the goal posts.

-----Click on the game piece that is most like yours-----













by Bruce Butts, Winterville, Georgia

One of the most interesting artifacts is the discoidal, and the circle roller disc is my favorite type.  Maybe it is because the majority of the circle roller discoidals come from within 100 miles of my home.  When I display my collection, people always ask about the different shape of the circle roller.

Most people have heard the stories about "chunkee,"where the Indians rolled the round stones and threw spears at the point where the disc would stop.  Most people quickly realize that the circle rollers would roll in a circle instead of the straight line like the other discoidals.  The most often asked question is "why a circle."

Circle rollers were used for an entirely different type of game.  You could probably call it "chunkee bowling."  There have been two "bowling" alleys actually found still intact.  One alley actually had seventeen circle rollers found on the alley and in the pockets where the circle roller would curve into, apparently to score points.

In 1932 William Colburn discovered three alleys while excavating the Princess mound on the J.J. Greenwood farm in Rabun County, Georgia.  On the south side of the mound, a group of field rocks was discovered.  At the same level, a hard baked clay runway was also found.  The runways were about 2 1/2 feet wide and perfectly level.  At the end of the runways, groups of rocks were arranged so that when the circle roller was rolled down the alley, the disc would curve into certain pockets (see the diagram).

Baked clay runways; possibly chunkey alleys.  It has been proposed that these were the receiving end of circle-roller discoidals based on a survey of North Georgia archaeological sites.  The field rocks were presumably used to aid in scoring.

Another chunkee alley was found at another site in Monroe County called Towaliga.  This is near where the Ocmulgee and Towaliga Rivers come together.  The alleys at this site were 160 feet long and 6 feet wide, but basically built just the same otherwise as the alleys at the Princess mound.  These two sites are approximately 80 miles apart.

During the excavation at the princess mound, there were 32 discoidals found.  These included biscuit, barrel, and Tennessee types, along with the 17 circle rollers.

Most circle rollers show some damage along the widest edge, since this is the part that would hit the ground first.  Most are found within 100 miles of Rabun County, Georgia.  I own one found on the Gulf Coast of Florida, and I have seen pictures of circle rollers from as far away as Arkansas, but it is my understanding that these are very rare finds the farther you go from Georgia.  Most of the circle rollers pictured with this article are from the northeast corner of Georgia where the bowling alleys were found.


by Anthony A. Stein, Parksville, Missouri

One of the most popular Mississippian artifacts today is the dislcoidal. What is a dislcoidal? The easiest answer is that a dislcoidal is a round Mississippian game stone that was used in the ancient Native American game known as chungkey or chunkey. No description of discoidals would be complete without some description of the game itself. In 1775, James Adair, in his 18th-century English, wrote a description of the game. The language seems rather difficult to following in places, but the message seems clear enough:

George Catlin's rendering of the Mandan people playing Tchung-kee or chunkey

"The warriors have another favorite game called chungke, which, with propriety of language, may be called "running hard labor." They have near their state-house a square piece of ground well cleaned, and fine sand is carefully strewn over it, when requisite, to promote a swifter motion to what they throw along the surface. Only one or two on the side play at this ancient game. They have stone about two fingers broad at the edge, and two spans round: each party as a pole of about 8 feet long, smooth and tapering at each end, the points flat. They set off abreast of each other  at six yards from the end of the playground; then one of them hurls the stone on its  edge, it as direct a line as he can, a considerable distance toward the middle of the other end of the square; when they have run a few yards, he darts his pole anointed with bears oil, with a proper force, as near as he can guess in proportion to the motion of the stone, that the end may lie close to the stone; when this is the case, the person counts two of the game, and, in proportion to the nearest of the polls to the mark, one is counted, unless by measuring both are found to at an equal distance from the stone.  In this manner, the players will keep running most part of the day, at half speed, under the violent heat of the sun, staking their silver ornaments, their nose, finger, and ear rings; their  breast, arm and wrist-plates, and even all their wearing apparel, except that which barely covers their middle. All the American Indians are much addicted to this game, which it seems to be of early origin, when their forefathers used diversions as simple as their manners. The hurling-stones they use at present  were,  time immemorial,  rubbed smooth on the rocks, and with prodigious labor, they are kept with the strictest religious care, from one generation to another, and are exempted from being buried with the dead. They belong to the town where they are used, and are carefully preserved."

Discoidals, sometimes called discs, were treasured tribal possessions through the Mississippian world. They have been found across all of the great Mississippian lands including the states of eastern Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Mississippi. Although styles often very from region to region, they were all used as game stones. Discoidals began appearing at Late Woodland sites in eastern Missouri and southern Illinois around 700 A.D. By Mississippian times, chuckey's popularity had spread through the Mississippian world. Some Mississippian sites have produced more than one discoidal style, while others have produced only a single style.

Many surviving discoidals are both beautiful and durable. Quartz and granite were often used in the making of these popular game stones.  Both materials are extremely hard, and they had to be. Discoidals were continually used in sporting contests over generations, so they had to be durable. A very few discoidals were made from colorful flint. Discoidals are very popular today with collectors because they come in many styles and colorful materials. Many are so finally made that today they are seen as works of sculptural art. The most frequently encountered discoidal styles are the Salt River, Jersey Bluff, Tennessee, Cahokia, Biscuit, Circle Roller, Apple, and Barrel.




From the collections of the Ocmulgee National Monument, Macon, Georgia


The perforated Tennessee style from the collections of the Ocmulgee National Monument

This Tennessee Double Cup style example from Indiana is part of the Paul Weisser collection and was illustrated by Lar Hotham in Ornamental Indian Artifacts, page 103.


The Tennessee style is one of the most desirable dislcoidal styles. They are often made from the finest quartz in colors ranging from white, amber, and honey, to dark red and rich brown. There is at least one Tennessee double cupped dislcoidal made from colorful flint. Some have diameters in excess of 6 inches. The double cupped variety gets its name from the small dimple or cup centered in the discoidal's larger cup. The Tennessee single cupped style is the same as the double cupped style in all ways except the small center cup is omitted. This style is considered a Southern style dislcoidal having its greatest concentration in Eastern Tennessee and northern Georgia, but it has been found as far West as southeastern Missouri.



Non-perforated Cahokia style discoidal from the collection of Bruce Butts



Perforated Cahokia style from the collection of Bud Sexton

Mound 72 type Cahokia discoidal from the collection of Bruce Butts

Another extremely popular dislcoidal style is the Cahokia style, which has at least three major varieties. The first variety refers to a dislcoidal with the cup that nearly reaches the edge of the dislcoidal. The cup slopes gradually toward the center of the dislcoidal where it reaches its maximum death. Some cups are so thin that light can easily pass through the center of the dislcoidal. The second Cahokia variety has a very thin and sharp edge. The depth of the cup is rather uniform from the edge to the center. The first two varieties are very narrow compared to their relative diameter. The third variety is the Mound 72 style, named for the discoidals excavated at Cahokia's mound 72. This style has a wide cup and relatively thin edge, but it is much thicker than the first two Cahokia styles and tends to have a more rounded circumference. Cahokia discoidals are usually made of colorful quartz, but some are made from granite. Classic Cahokia dislcoidals usually range from 2 to 4 inches in diameter. A few have a perforation in the middle of the cup. Find and distribution patterns show that Cahokia dislcoidals were primarily used in Illinois and Missouri from the Illinois River to the Missouri boot heal; however, the perforated varieties do appear in western Indiana.



From the collection of Bruce Butts

The Salt River discoidal was one of the most enduring of the discoidal styles. Named after the Salt River in eastern Missouri, it first appeared in eastern Missouri during the late Woodland times but continued until middle Mississippian times ( CA. 1350 A.D.). Although occasionally found at the Cahokia complex (Madison and St. Clair counties in Illinois), it is most often found in parts of northeastern Missouri. It is relatively unknown in Mississippian lands outside this limited area. It's distinctive V-shaped outer rim and relatively narrow cup make it one of the most unusual styles. The Salt River style ranges in size from 2  inches in diameter. They were most commonly made from granite and  dark hardstone, but they were occasionally made from quartz.



From the collection of Bruce Butts

The Fort Ancient type was illustrated by Lar Hothem in Ornamental Indian Artifacts, page114.  The Fort Ancient site is located in Tennessee, but the type is known to occur in Georgia, Kentucky and Ohio.  This type occurs with and without the central perforation and has a moderately wide, flat surface between the rim and the central cup.



From the collection of Bud Sexton

The Jersey Bluff type was illustrated by Lar Hothem in Ornamental Indian Artifacts, pages 104-105.  This type has rounded sides that meet at the sharp to rounded rim of the cup.  The type is does not appear to have any perforated examples.  The Jersey Bluff culture was named by Dr. Titterington at the Nutwood site in Jersey County, Illinois.  Examples of this type are known from Jersey County and the surrounding areas.




The Apple discoidal is one of the rarest types. It is so named because of its general appearance. Each side has a rather narrow cup in relationship to its diameter. Some cups can be rather deep. Find and distribution patterns suggest that the Apple discoidal was only a regional style, limited to southern Missouri and northern Arkansas. Sizes range from 2-1/2 inches to over 4 inches in diameter. Of all the discoidal styles, this one style seems best suited to fit in the chunkey players'' hand as it was rolled at high speed on the chunky field.




From the collection of Bruce Butts

The final three discoidal styles have no cups at all. They are the Biscuit, the Circle Roller, and the Barrel. The Biscuit style, sometimes called the Double Convex style or Bradley style, is a rather late Mississippian type. It was introduced around 1350 A.D. and lasted until, protohistoric times.  It was favored South and east from the Missouri boot heel, but it did not seem to be popular in Illinois. Apparently the Illinois Mississippians preferred cupped discoidals. Biscuit styles range in size from 2 to over 4 inches in diameter, and they were usually made from quarts, hardstone or flint. Flint biscuits are very rare and are usually found in Tennessee, northern Alabama and Georgia.



From the collection of Bruce Butts

The circle roller style is unique among all discoidals in that it is the only style that is not symmetrical. One side is flat and the other side is domed. Excavations in North Georgia suggests that this disloyal style may have been used for an entirely different game then chunkey.  Its  fined and distribution pattern suggests that it was a northern Georgia style, perhaps radiating from the Etowah complex near present-day Cartersville, Georgia. Circle roller discoidals are made from some of the most attractive stone materials ever used for discoidals.  They are encountered in beautiful amber, quartz and other translucent materials. The Circle roller style ranges in size from 2 to nearly 4 inches in diameter.



From the collection of Bud Sexton

The last discoidal style is the Barrel. It is perhaps the oldest and most cumbersome of all the discoidal styles. Found primarily in Tennessee, it derives its name from its general barrel shape. A rare style, it is the only type that can have a height greater than its diameter. Barrel discoidals are usually very tall, large and heavy. Some Barrel discoidals reach a height of over 5 inches and may be nearly 5 inches in diameter. It is difficult to imagine how a man could roll such a large and awkward discoidal very far. The largest Barrel discoidals may have been ceremonial.



From the collection of Bruce Butts

This unusual discoidal type appears only in Florida.  Florida discoidals can measure from about 2 inches (left) to as large as 4 inches (right).  The larger example is from just above the Florida/Georgia line while the smaller example was recovered well within Florida.  The central cup is small and is located far from the rim as shown, but the reverse side is convex and has no cup at all.



From the collection of Bud Sexton

This unusual style seems to be localized along the Tennessee River in Meigs County, Tennessee. This example measures about 2.5 inches in diameter and stands over 2 inches in height.   this type has a sharp median ridge along its cercomfrance and is domed on both top and bottom without any cup.  Lar Hotham illustrated this type in Ornamental Indian Artifacts,page 110, calling it a Salt River type.  The example illustrated by Hotham was from southwestern Illinois.



Chunky or Chunkey, chenco, tchung-kee or the hoop and stick game, is a game of Native American origin.  Chunkey was played between two opponents, one rolling a stone disc across the ground and the other throwing a spear in an attempt to place the spear as close to the stopped stone as possible.  The game would often continue until both players were exhausted. The game originated about 600 CE in the Cahokia region that is now near St. Louis, Missouri.  It continued to be played throughout North America in one form or another long after the decline of the Mississippian period about 1500 CE.  Early ethnographer James Adair translated the name to mean "running hard labor."   The intention of the games seemed to be the gathering of large groups of neighboring villages and even visitors.  Gambling was frequently connected to the game, with some players wagering everything they owned on the outcome of the game.  Losers were even known to commit suicide.

Chunkey player depicted in a figure at Cahokia

George Catlin noted that among the Creeks, Chickasaw, Choctaw and others, chunky was decidedly their favorite game, practicing in in their spare time during warm weather.  The game was played on large, flat ball fields.  The stones were considered valuable objects and as community, not individual property, they were not allowed to be used as burial objects.