The pages listed below contain an overview of general information about each archaeological period.  Click on the name of the period you would like to read about.

 

Pre-Clovis Sites   

Paleoindian Period

 

Early Archaic Period   

 

Middle Archaic Period  

 

Late Archaic Period     

 

Early Woodland Period 

 

Middle Woodland Period   

 

Late Woodland Period 

 

Early Mississippian Period   

 

Middle Mississippian Period   

 

Late Mississippian Period    

 

Historic European Contact Period  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yamasee Indian Tribe History

Yamasee (a name of uncertain etymology, and evidently an abbreviated form).
A former noted tribe of Muskhogean stock, best known in connection with early South Carolina history, but apparently occupying originally the coast region and islands of s. Georgia, and extending into Florida. From their residence near Savannah river they have frequently been confused with the "Savannahs," or Shawano, and the Yuchi. Missions were established in their territory by the Spaniards about 1570, and they lived under the jurisdiction of the Spanish government of Florida until 1687, when, in consequence of an attempt to transport a number of their people as laborers to the West Indies, they revolted, attacked a number of the mission settlements and peaceful Indians, and then fled north across Savannah river to the English colony of South Carolina. They were allowed to settle within the present limits of Beaufort county, where at a later period they had several villages, the principal of which was Pocotaligo; others were Tolemato and Topiqui (?). They aided against the Tuscrora in 1712, but in 1715, in consequence of dissatisfaction with the traders, organized a combination against the English which included all, or nearly all, the tribes from Cape Fear to the Florida border. The traders were slaughtered in the Indian towns and a general massacre of settlers took place along the Carolina frontier. After several engagements the Yamasee were finally defeated by Gov. Craven at Salkechuh (Saltketchers) on the Combahee and driven across the Savannah. They retired in a body to Florida where they were again received by the Spaniards and settled in villages near St Augustine. From that time they were known as allies of the Spaniards and enemies of the English, against whom they made frequent raids in company with other Florida Indians. A small part of them also appear to have taken refuge with the Catawba, where, according to Adair, they still retained their separate identity in 1743. In 1727 their village near St Augustine was attacked and destroyed by the English, and their Indian allies and most of the inhabitants were killed. In 1761 the remnant was said to number about 20 men, residing near St Augustine, and they seen also to have had a small settlement near Pensacola. The tradition of their destruction and enslavement by the Seminole is noted by several writers of this and a later period. As late as 1812 a small band retained the name among the Seminole, and some settled among the Hitchiti, but they have now completely disappeared. They were said to be darker than the Creeks, and "flat-footed," and from their proficiency as canoe men gave name to a particular method of rowing known as the " Yamasee stroke."

Timucua

The Timucua were a Native American people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. They were the largest indigenous group in that area and consisted of about 35 chiefdoms, many leading thousands of people. The various groups of Timucua spoke several dialects of the Timucua. At the time of European first contact, the territory occupied by speakers of Timucuan dialects occupied about 19,200 square miles (50,000 km2), and was home to between 50,000 and 200,000 Timuacans. It stretched from the Altamaha River and Cumberland Island in present-day Georgia as far south as Lake George in central Florida, and from the Atlantic Ocean west to the Aucilla River in the Florida Panhandle, though it reached the golf of Mexico at no more than a couple of points.

The name "Timucua" (from Thimogona) came from the exonvm used by the Saturiwa (of what is now Jacksonville) to refer to the Utina, a related people living to the west of the St. Johns River. The Spanish came to use the term more broadly for other peoples in the area. Eventually it became the common term for all peoples who spoke what is known as the Timucuan language.

While alliances and confederacies arose between the chiefdoms from time to time, the Timucua were never organized into a single political unit. The various groups of Timucua speakers practiced several different cultural traditions. The people suffered severely from the introduction of Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no immunity. By 1595, their population was estimated to have been reduced from 200,000 to 50,000 and only thirteen chiefdoms remained. By 1700, the population of the tribe had been reduced to 1000. Warfare against them by the English colonists and native allies completed their extinction as a tribe soon after the turn of the 19th century.

The word "Timucua" may derive from "Thimogona" or "Tymangoua", an exonym used by the Saturiwa tribe for their enemies, the Utina. Both groups spoke dialects of the Timucua language. The French followed the Saturiwa in this usage, but the Spanish applied the term "Timucua" much more widely to groups within a wide section of interior North Florida. In the 16th century they designated the area north of the Santa Fe River between the St. Johns River and the Suwannee River (roughly the area of the group known as the Northern Utina) as the Timucua province, which they incorporated into the mission system. The dialect spoken in that province became known as "Timucua" (now usually known as "Timucua proper"). During the 17th century, the Province of Timucua was extended to include the area between the Suwannee River and the Aucilla River, thus extending its scope. Eventually, "Timucua" was applied to all speakers of the various dialects of the Timucua language.

History

One of the engravings based on Jacques le Moyne's drawings, depicting Athore, son of the Timucuan chief Saturiwa, showing Rene’ Laudonnie’re a monument placed by Jean Ribault

The pre-Colombian era was marked by regular, routine, and probably small tribal wars with neighbors. The Timucua were a large and powerful group, made up of as many as 35 chiefdoms, each of which had hundreds of people in assorted villages within its purview. They sometimes formed loose political alliances, but did not operate as a single political unit.

The Timucua may have been the first American natives to see the landing of Juan Ponce de Leon near St. Augustine in 1513. Later, in 1528, Panfilo de Nevarez 's expedition passed along the western fringes of the Timucua territory.

 

In 1539, Hernando DeSoto led an army of more than 500 men through the western parts of Timucua territory, stopping in a series of villages of the Ocale, Potano, Northern Utina, and Yustaga branches of the Timucua on his way to the Apalachee domain. His army seized the food stored in the villages, took women for consorts, and forced men and boys to serve as guides and bearers. The army fought two battles with Timucua groups, resulting in heavy Timucua casualties. De Soto was in a hurry to reach the Apalachee domain, where he expected to find gold and sufficient food to support his army through the winter. He did not linger in Timucua territory. De Soto quick departure from Timcuan territory was prompted by an effective guerrilla defense organized by the warrior chieftain Acuera, whose people beheaded fourteen of the invading conquistadors while suffering relatively few casualties compared to the massacres unleashed by the Spaniards in other places.

In 1564, French Huguenots led by Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere founded Fort Caroline in present-day Jacksonville and attempted to establish further settlements along the St. Johns River. After initial conflict, the Huguenots established friendly relations with the local natives in the area, primarily the Timucua under the cacique Saturiwa. Sketches of the Timucua drawn by Jacques le Moyne de Morgues, one of the French settlers, have proven valuable resources for modern ethnographic in understanding the people. The next year the Spanish under Pedro Menéndez D Aviles surprised the Huguenots and ransacked Fort Caroline, killing everyone but 50 women and children and 26 escapees. The rest of the French had been shipwrecked off the coast and picked up by the Spanish, who executed all but 20 of them; this brought French settlement in Florida nearly to an end. These events caused a rift between the natives and Spanish, though Spanish missionaries were soon out in force.

The Timucua history changed after the Spanish established St. Augustine in 1565 as the capital of their province of Florida. From here, Spanish missionaries established missions in each main town of the Timucuan chiefdoms, including the Santa Isabel de Utinahica mission in southern Georgia, for the Utinahica. By 1595, the Timucuan population had shrunk by 75%, primarily from epidemics of new infectious diseases introduced by contact with Europeans, and war.

By 1700, the Timucuan population had been reduced to just 1000. In 1703 the British with the Creek, Catawba, and Yuchi began killing and enslaving hundreds of the Timucua. Seventeen years later their number had dropped to just 250. In 1726 there were 176, and by 1752 only 26 remained. By the time the United States acquired Florida in 1821, only five or fewer Timucua remained. They became extinct as a people.

Tribes

The Timucua were divided into a number of different tribes or chiefdoms, each of which spoke one of the nine or ten dialects of the Timucua language. The tribes can be placed into eastern and western groups. The Eastern Timucua were located along the Atlantic coast and on the Sea Islands of northern Florida and southeastern Georgia; along the St. Johns River and its tributaries; and among the rivers, swamps and associated inland forests in southeastern Georgia, possibly including the Okefenokee Swamp. They usually lived in villages close to waterways, participated in the St. Johns culture or in unnamed cultures related to the Wilmington-Savannah culture, and were more focused on exploiting the resources of marine and wetland environments. All of the known Eastern Timucua tribes were incorporated into the Spanish mission system starting in the late 16th century.

The Western Timucua lived in the interior of the upper Florida peninsula, extending to the Aucilla River on the west and into Georgia to the north. They usually lived in villages in forests, and participated in the Alachua, Suwanee Valley or other unknown cultures. Because of their environment, they were more oriented to exploiting the resources of the forests.

Earlier scholars such as John Swanton and John Goggin identified tribes around Tampa they – Tocobaga, the Uzita, and the Mocoso – as Timucua speakers, classed by Goggin as Southern Timucua. However, some of these tribes appear not to have spoken Timucua.

Eastern Timucua

The largest and best known of the eastern Timucua groups were the Mocama, who lived in the coastal areas of what are now Florida and southeastern Georgia, from St. Simons Island to south of the mouth of the St. Johns River. They gave their name to the Mocama province, which became one of the major divisions of the Spanish mission system. They spoke a dialect also known as Mocama (Timucua for "Ocean"), which is the best attested of the Timucua dialects. At the time of European contact, there were two major chiefdoms among the Mocama, the Saturiwa and the Tacatacuru, each of which had a number of smaller villages subject to them.

The Saturiwa were concentrated around the mouth of the St. Johns in what is now Jacksonville, and had their main village on Fort George Island. European contact with the Eastern Timucua began in 1564 when the French Huguenots under Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere established Fort Caroline in Saturiwa territory. The Saturiwa forged an alliance with the French, and at first opposed the Spanish when they arrived. Over time, however, they submitted to the Spanish and were incorporated into their mission system. The important Mission San Juan Del Puerto was established at their main village; it was here that Francisco Pareja undertook his studies of the Timucua language. The Tacatacuru lived on Cumberland Island in present-day Georgia, and controlled villages on the coast. They too were incorporated into the Spanish mission system, with Mission San Pedro D Mocama being established in 1587.

Other Eastern Timucua tribes lived in southeastern Georgia. The Icafui and Cascangue tribes occupied the Georgia mainland north of the Satilla River, adjacent to the Guale. They spoke the Itafi dialect of Timucua. The Yufera tribe lived on the coast opposite to Cumberland Island and spoke the Yufera dialect. The Ibi tribe lived inland from the Yufera, and had 5 towns located 14 leagues (about 50 miles) from Cumberland Island; like the Icafui and Cascangue they spoke the Itafi dialect. All these groups participated in a culture that was intermediate between the St. Johns and Wilmington-Savannah cultures. The Oconi lived further west, perhaps on the east side of the Okefenokee Swamp. Both the Ibi and Oconi eventually received their own missions, while the coastal tribes were subject to San Pedro on Cumberland Island.

Up the St. Johns River to the south of the Saturiwa were the Utina, later known as the Agua Dulce or Agua Fresca (Freshwater) tribe. They lived along the river from roughly the Palatka area south to Lake George. They participated in the St. Johns culture and spoke the Agua Dulce dialect. The area between Palatka and downtown Jacksonville was relatively less populated, and may have served as a barrier between the Utina and Saturiwa, who were frequently at war. In the 1560s the Utina were a powerful chiefdom of over 40 villages. However, by the end of the century the confederacy had crumbled, with most of the diminished population withdrawing to six towns further south on the St. Johns.

The Acurea lived along the Ocklawaha River, and spoke the Acuera dialect.

Western Timucua

Three major Western Timucua groups, the Potano, Northern Utina, and Yustaga, were incorporated into the Spanish mission system in the late 16th and 17th centuries.

The Potano lived in north central Florida, in an area covering Alachua County and possibly extending west to Cofa at the mouth of the Suwanee River. They participated in the Alachua culture and spoke the Potano dialect. They were among the first Timucua peoples to encounter Europeans, suffering an attack by Hernando DeSoto 's expedition in 1538. They were frequently at war with the Utina tribe, who managed to convince first the French and later the Spanish to join them in combined assaults against the Potano. They received missionaries in the 1590s and five missions were built in their territory by 1633. Like other Western Timucua groups they participated in the Timucua Rebellion of 1656.

North of the Potano, living in a wide area between the Suwanee and St. Johns Rivers, were the northern Utina. This name is purely a convention; they were known as the "Timucua" to their contemporaries. They participated in the Suwanee Valley culture and spoke the "Timucua proper" dialect. The Northern Utina appear to have been less integrated than other Timucua tribes, and seem to have been organized into several small local chiefdoms, with the leader of one being recognized as paramount chief. They were missionized beginning in 1597 and their territory was organized by the Spanish as the Timucua province. Over time smaller provinces were merged into the Timucua Province, thereby increasing the profile of the Northern Utina substantially. They took the forefront in the Timucua Rebellion of 1656, and their society declined severely when it was put down.

On the other side of the Suwanee River from the Northern Utina were the westernmost Timucua group, the Yustaga. They lived between the Suwanee and the Aucilla River, which served as a boundary with the Apalachee. They participated in the same Suwanee Valley culture as the Northern Utina, but appear to have spoken a different dialect, perhaps Potano. Unlike other Timucua groups, the Yustaga resisted Spanish missionary efforts until well into the 17th century. They maintained higher population levels significantly later than other Timucua groups, as their less frequent contact with Europeans kept them freer of introduced diseases. Like other Western Timucua groups, they participated in the Timucua Rebellion.

Other Western Timucua tribes are known from the earliest Spanish records, but later disappeared. The most significant of these are the Ocale, who lived in Marion County, near the modern city of Ocala, which takes its name from them. Ocale was conquered by De Soto in 1538 and the people dispersed; the town is unknown from later sources. However, both French and Spanish sources note a town named Eloquale or Etoquale in the Acuera chiefdom, suggesting that the Ocale may have migrated east and joined the Acuera. Hann has argued that the chiefdom of Mocoso, located near the mouth of the Alafia River on the eastern shore of Tampa Bay in the 16th century, was Timucuan. He suggest that the people of that chiefdom may have relocated to the village of Mocoso in Acuera province in the 17th century.

Culture

 

An extremely rare Timucua owl totem, found buried in muck near Huntoon Island, on display at Fort Caroline national Monument

Organization and classes

The Timucua were not a unified political unit. Rather, they were made up of at least 35 chiefdoms, each consisting of about two to ten villages, with one being primary. In 1601 the Spanish noted more than 50 caciques (chiefs) subject to the head caciques of Santa Elena (Yustaga), San Pedro (Tacatacuru, on Cumberland Island), Timucua (Northern Utina) and Potano. The Tacatacuru, Saturiwa and Cascangue were subject to San Pedro, while the Yufera and Ibi, neighbors of the Tacatacuru and Cascangue, were independent.

Villages were divided into family clans, usually bearing animal names. Children always belonged to their mothers clan.

Customs

The Timucua played two related but distinct ball games. Western Timucua played a game known as the "Apalachee ballgame". Despite the name, it was as closely associated with the western Timucua as it was with the Apalachee. It involved two teams of around 40 or 50 players kicking a ball at a goal post. Hitting the post was worth one point, while landing it in an eagle 's nest at the top of the post was worth two; the first team to score eleven points was the victor. The western Timucua game was evidently less associated with religious significance, violence, and fraud than the Apalachee version, and as such missionaries had a much more difficult time convincing them to give it up.

The eastern Timucua played a similar game in which balls were thrown, rather than kicked, at a goal post. The Timucua probably also played chunkey, as did the neighboring Apalachee and Guale peoples, but there is no firm evidence of this. Archery, running, and dancing were other popular pastimes.

The chief had a council that met every morning, when they would discuss the problems of the chiefdom and smoke. To initiate the meeting, the White Drink ceremony would be carried out (see "Diet" below). The council members were among the more highly respected members of the tribe.

Settlements

One of the sketches by Jacques le Moyne showing a Timucua village

The Timucua of northeast Florida (the Saturiwa and Agua Dulce tribes) at the time of first contact with Europeans lived in villages that typically contained about 30 houses, and 200 to 300 people. The houses were small, made of upright poles and circular in shape. Palm leaf thatching covered the pole frame, with a hole at the top for ventilation and smoke escape. The houses were 15 to 20 feet (4.5 to 6 m) across and were used primarily for sleeping. A village would also have a council house which would usually hold all of the villagers. Europeans described some council houses as being large enough to hold 3,000 people. If a village grew too large, some of the families would start a new village nearby, so that clusters of related villages formed. Each village or small cluster of related villages had its own chief. Temporary alliances between villages for warfare were also formed. Ceremonial mounds might be in or associated with a village, but the mounds belonged to clans rather than villages.

Diet

The Timucua were a semi-agricultural people and ate many foods native to North Central Florida. They planted maize (corn), beans, squash and various vegetables as part of their diet. Archaeologists' findings suggest that they may have employed crop rotation. In order to plant, they used fire to clear the fields of weeds and brush. They prepared the soil with various tools, such as the hoe. Later the women would plant the seeds using two sticks known as coa. They also cultivated tobacco. Their crops were stored in granaries to protect them from the insects and weather. Corn was ground into flour and used to make corn fritters.

In addition to agriculture, the Timucua men would hunt game (including alligators, manatees, and maybe even whales); fish in the many streams and lakes in the area; and collect freshwater and marine shellfish. The women gathered wild fruits, palm berries, acorns, and nuts; and baked bread made from the root koonti. Meat was cooked by boiling or over an open fire known as the barbacoa, the origin of the word "barbecue". Fish were filleted and dried or boiled. Broths were made from meat and nuts.

After the establishment of many Spanish mission between 1595–1620, the Timuca were introduced to foods from European culture, including barley, cabbage, chickens, cucumbers, figs, garbanzo beans, garlic, European grapes, European greens, hazelnuts, various herbs, lettuce, melons, oranges, peas, peaches, pigs, pomegranates, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, watermelons, and wheat. Corn became a traded item and was exported to other Spanish colonies.

A black tea called "black drink " (or "white drink" because of its purifying effects) served a ceremonial purpose, and was a highly caffeinated caffeinated Cassina tea, brewed from the leaves of the Yaupon Holly tree. The tea was only consumed by males in good status with the tribe. The drink was posited to have an effect of purification, and those who consumed it often vomited immediately. This drink was integral to most Timucua rituals and hunts.

Physical appearance

Spanish explorers were shocked at the height of the Timucua, who averaged four inches or more above them. Timucuan men wore their hair in a bun on top of their heads, adding to the perception of height. Measurement of skeletons exhumed from beneath the floor of a presumed Northern Utina mission church (tentatively identified as San Martín de Timucua) at the fig Springs mission site yielded a mean height of 64 inches (163 cm) for nine adult males and 62 inches (158 cm) for five adult women. The conditions of the bones and teeth indicated that the population of the mission had been chronically stressed. Each person was extensively tattooed. The tattoos were gained by deeds. Children began to acquire tattoos as they took on more responsibility. The people of higher social class had more elaborate decorations. The tattoos were made by poking holes in the skin and rubbing ashes into the holes. The Timucua had dark skin, usually brown, and black hair. They wore clothes made from moss, and cloth created from various animal skins.

Language

The Timucua groups, never unified culturally or politically, are defined by their shared use of the Timucua language. The language is relatively well attested compared to other Native American languages of the period. This is largely due to the work of Francisco Pareja, a Franciscan missionary at San Juan Del Puerto, who in the 17th century produced a grammar of the language and four catechisms in parallel Timucua and Spanish. The other sources for the language are two catechisms by another Franciscan, Gregorio de Movilla, two letters from Timucua chiefs, and bits and pieces in other European sources.

Pareja noted that there were ten dialects of Timucua, which were usually divided along tribal lines. These are Timucua proper, Potano, Itafi, Yufera, Mocama, Agua Salada, Tucururu, Agua Fresca, Acuera, and Oconi.

2006 discovery

An archaeological dig in St. Augustine in 2006 yielded a Timucuan site dating back to between 1100 and 1300 CE, , predating the European founding of the city by more than two centuries. Included in the discovery were pottery, with pieces from the Macon, Georgia, area, indicating an expansive trade network; and two human skeletons. It is the oldest archeological site in the city.

Westo Indians

The Westo Indians, who lived along the Savannah River near Agusta from about 1660 to 1680, were one of the most important Native American groups in the southeastern United States. They obtained firearms from the English in Virginia before most other Indians in the Southeast did, which gave them a tremendous military advantage over bow-and-arrow Indians. The Westos used this advantage to enslave natives throughout Georgia, Florida, and the Carolinas. They then traded their captives as field slaves to colonists in Virginia and South Carolina for items of European manufacture, including guns, ammunition, steel hatchets, blankets, and glass beads. Since firearms and ammunition were the key to Westo dominance, the group fought hard to establish a reliable source for these goods while at the same time denying such access to other native groups.

Also known as the Rickahocans or Chichimecos, the Westos originally came to the Southeast after having been driven out of the Northeast by the powerful Iroquois. The Westos were one of many groups the Iroquois drove off or destroyed in their effort to monopolize the Northeast gun trade, and it is clear that the actions of the Westos in the southeastern United States were an imitation of Iroquois tactics. Because of their vulnerable position in the beginning, the Carolina colony befriended the fearsome Westos and used them as a barrier against the threat of Spanish aggression from the south. Once the Carolina colony had grown strong enough to protect itself, the Westos were seen as an impediment to the expansion of trade out of Charleston. In order to remove them, a group of Carolinians known as the Goose Creek Men secretly armed the Savannah Indians, who destroyed the Westos in the Westo War of 1680 and opened the way for a great expansion of the deerskin and slave trade.

The Westo were a native American tribe encountered in the Southeast by Europeans in the 17th century. They probably spoke an Iroquoian language. The Spanish called these people Chichimeco (not to be confused with Chichimeca in Mexico), and, Virginia colonists may have called the same people Richahecrian. Their first appearance in the historical record is as a powerful tribe in colonial Virginia, who had migrated from the mountains into the region around present-day Richmond. Their population provided a force of 700–900 warriors.

Early academic analysis of the origin of the Westo posited that the so-called Rechahecrian/Rickohakan of Virginia were perhaps Cherokee or Yuchi, and that the Westo were a band of Yuchi. Anthropologist Marvin T. Smith (1987:131-132) was the first to suggest that the Westo were a group of Erie, who had lived south of Lake Erie until forced to migrate further south to Virginia during the 17th-century Beaver Wars. Smith theorizes that as the colonial settlements expanded in Virginia, the Westo migrated south to the Savannah River shortly before the founding of South Carolina in 1670. Subsequent work by John Worth (1995:17) and Eric Bowne (2006) strongly supports Smith’s hypothesis.

History

Virginia established a trading relationship with the Westo, exchanging firearms for Indian slaves. When the Westo migrated to the Savannah River, they quickly became known for their military power and their slave raids on other tribes. Before their destruction, the Westo wreaked havoc on the Spanish missionary provinces of Guale and Mocama. That the Westo had ties with Virginia did not mean they would be friendly toward the South Carolinians. In 1673 the Westo attacked coastal Indians, such as the Cusabo, as well as the Carolina colony. The colony depended on the Esaw tribe for defense until December of 1674, when some Westo visited Dr. Henry Woodward and made peace. The peace became an alliance after the Westo escorted Woodward to their towns on the Savannah River, giving many presents and encouraging friendship.

From 1675 to 1680, trade between the Westo and South Carolina thrived. The Westo provided Carolina with slaves, captured from various Native American groups, including the Spanish-allied tribes in Guale and Mocama. These were the "Settlement Indians", supposedly under the protection of Carolina. The Westo likely captured slaves from the Cherokee, Chickasaw, and the various smaller tribes who would later align as the Creek Confederacy.

Since the Westo were traditionally enemies with nearly every other tribe in the region, their alliance with Carolina effectively blocked the colony from establishing any other tribal relationship. A group of Shawnee Indians migrated to the Savannah River region and met with the Westo while Henry Woodward was among them. These Shawnee became known as the "Savannah Indians". Woodward apparently witnessed the first meeting of the Shawnee and Westo. Using sign language, the Shawnee (Savannah) warned the Westo of an impending attack from other tribes. They earned the goodwill of the Westo, who began to prepare for the attack.

The Savannah later approached Woodward and established an independent relationship with the colonists, which would doom the Westo. The Carolinians realized the value of trading beyond the Westo. When war broke out between Carolina and the Westo in 1679, the Savannah/Shawnee assisted the Carolinians. After they destroyed the Westo in 1680, the Savannah moved into their lands and took over their role as the chief Indian trading partner with the Carolina colony. The fate of most of the surviving Westo was probably enslavement and shipment to work on sugar plantations in the West Indies. (Information on slave raids, Dr. Woodward, Savannah/Shawnee, and the defeat of the Westo mainly from Gallay 2002).

Some surviving Westo may have continued to live near the colony of South Carolina. A map published anonymously in 1715 shows Indian villages during the period from about 1691 to 1715, when the early Creek towns had relocated from the Chattahoochee River to the Ocmulgee River and Oconee River. The map shows a town labeled "Westas" (all the towns labels are pluralized) on the Ocmulgee River above the Towaliga River confluence. It is one of a cluster of towns near the important "Lower Creek" town of Coweta. The 1715 map shows town locations as of sometime between 1691 and 1715, when the Lower Creek moved their towns back to the Chattahoochee River. Westo town is not shown on later maps. As with several other groups of Indian refugees who found haven with the Lower Creeks, the apparent fate of the surviving Westo was absorption into the emerging Creek confederacy (Worth 2000).

THE PRE-CLOVIS CULTURES

By Steven Beasley

 

There are many new and interesting facts coming to light regarding the peopling of the Americas. The “Clovis-first” hypothesis has been abandoned and new ideas are swirling around us with new data that must be reviewed and tested. Much of the information presented here comes directly from the Paleo and Beyond Conference that was held in October 2013.

In reviewing the present data, the radio carbon dating method, developed in the 1940’s and later refined in the 1950’s, has been the preferred dating method thus far. Sites that have provided much of the data being reviewed has come from the Monte Verde site in southern Chile, the Meadowcroft Rock Shelter in Pennsylvania, Cactus Hill in Virginia, Paisley Caves at Five Mile Point in Oregon, the Page-Ladson site in the Aucilla River of Florida, the Gault and Friedkin sites in south-central Texas, Smith Creek Cave in Nevada, Danger Cave in Utah, Connely Cave 5 in Oregon, the Cooper’s Ferry site in the lower Salmon River of Idaho, and the Dietz site in Oregon. Each of these sites has their own unique evidence to offer and each will be summarized in the articles listed below.

 

Click on the name of the site you want to read about in detail

 You will be taken to web sites that contain updated information about each site and, in some cases, you will receive information on how you can visit the site.

 

THE MONTE VERDE SITE, CHILE


 

THE MEADOWCROFT ROCK SHELTER, PENNSYLVANIA

 

 

THE CACTUS HILL SITE, VIRGINIA

 

 

THE PAISLEY CAVES SITE, OREGON

 

 

CONNLEY CAVE 5, OREGON

 

 

DIETZ OREGON

 

 

THE PAGE-LADSON SITE, FLORIDA

 

 

THE GAULT SITE, TEXAS

 

 

THE FRIEDKIN SITE, TEXAS

 

THE SMITH CREEK CAVE SITE, NEVADA

 

 

THE DANGER CAVE SITE, UTAH

 

 

THE COOPER’S FERRY SITE, IDAHO